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| 24 Friday November to 01 Friday December 2017|



1. PAKISTAN. The supporters of the little-known Islamist group of cleric KHADIM HUSSAIN RIZVI and his political party “Tehreek-e-Labaik Pakistan” paralyzed the capital ISLAMABAD and LAHORE and KARACHI with protests due to a revision of the oath to be taken by the election candidates omitted to mention the name of Prophet MUHAMMAD. The protesters claimed the revision was blasphemous which a highly contentious issue in PAKISTAN. Critics state that the Government had changed the oath to enable the participation of Ahmadis, a long persecuted Islamic minority sect. The Law Minister ZAHID HAMID resigned over the issue as demanded by the anti-blasphemy protesters and the revision was reversed with immediate effect.


2. MYANMAR. A 3- phase plan for resolving the Rohingya crisis was proposed by Chinese Foreign Minister WANG YI at the Asia Europe Meeting (ASEM) of Foreign Ministers on 20 November 2017 at the MYANMAR capital. He said the first phase’s has already been achieved with a ceasefire that is working and that proper mechanisms should be in place to ensure that there is no rekindling the flames of war. The Minister said a bilateral dialogue should follow to find a workable solution and the third and final phase should be to work toward long-term solutions based on poverty alleviation, since the poverty is the root cause of the conflict. MYANMAR’s Military remains on guard against incursions by the Arakan Rohingya Salutation Army (ARSA) insurgents who fled to BANGLADESH with over 600,000 Muslim refugees and declared a one month ceasefire on 10 September 2017, which was rejected by the Government. The Army confirms that fighting stopped on 05 September 2017 and no serious clashes have taken place since then. Meanwhile, POPE FRANCIS who had visited MYANMAR on 28 November 2017 avoided using the name “Rohingya” or directly addressing their situation after church leaders advised him that doing so would aggravate the situation and put the country’s tiny Catholic population at risk.


3. JAPAN. JAPAN’s reluctance to accept refugees has drawn sharp criticism from International Human Rights groups and it has been at odds with its traditional status as a major International donor on refugees. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees FILIPPO GRANDI on 20 November 2017, urged JAPAN to resettle more asylum seekers pressuring the country to help solve a global crisis after giving refugee status to just three people in the first half of the year 2017. JAPAN accepts only about 20-30 refugees a year and has become one of the developed world’s least welcoming countries for asylum seekers due to its wider caution towards immigration as many Japanese people pride themselves on cultural and ethnic homogeneity. Further, JAPAN has a fast-shrinking and ageing population that blunts the potency of Government efforts to rouse the economy from over two decades of low growth and deflation. This year more than 2 million people joined the ranks of the world’s refugees, which stood at 17.2 million at the end of the year 2016, due to wars or persecution.


4. ISRAEL. Israel’s Energy Minister YUVAL STEINITZ, a member of Prime Minister Netanyahu’s Security Council confirmed on 19th November that Israel has had covert contacts with SAUDI ARABIA, in a first-ever disclosure by the Israeli Government on this highly sensitive issue. SAUDI ARABIA has so far been maintaining that any relations with ISRAEL hinged on Israeli withdrawal from Arab lands captured in the 1967 Six-Day War. However, both SAUDI ARABIA and ISRAEL along with the current US administration view Iran as the main threat to the MIDDLE EAST and increased tensions between Iran and SAUDI ARABIA have fuelled speculations that shared interests may push SAUDI ARABIA and ISRAEL to work together through covert operations. Minister STENITZ further revealed that ISRAEL has ties that are indeed partly covert with many Muslim and Arab countries. Last week, Saudi Foreign Minister ADEL JUBEIR cited a Saudi peace initiative, first adopted in 2012 by the Arab League as key to forging any relationship with ISRAEL. The 2002 peace plan makes those relations contingent on a full withdrawal by ISRAEL from all occupied territories including East Jerusalem.


5. ZIMBABWE. Since the takeover of the Government by former Vice President EMMERSON MNANGAGWA as the interim President of ZIMBABWE, international observers note that Transnational Companies (TNCs) anticipate that MNANGAGWA administration would open the country for TNCs to engage in industry and trade targeting its minerals (diamonds, gold, platinum, coal, iron, chromium, nickel, copper, lithium etc). Former President ROBERT MUGABE had been demonised by the corporate media in the West for leading his ZANU-PF movement along with JOSHUA NKOMO’s African People’s Union (ZAPU) in a fierce guerrilla war of independence against white dictator IAN SMITH’s rule in SOUTHERN RHODESIA (ZIMBABWE) and carrying out socio-economic reforms against whites who owned 70% of the arable land in independent Zimbabwe. Under MUGABE’s indigenisation law all foreign companies were required to be controlled by Zimbabweans. Unfortunately due to economic sanctions imposed by the West, corruption, MUGABE’s own out-dated idealism, ZIMBABWE became a failed state.


6. RUSSIA. The Security Council of the Russian Federation on 27 November 2017 ordered the Federal Security Service (FSB) and the Communication Ministry to take additional measures to regulate information exchange on the Internet as endorsed at its special session in late October. It claims that terrorists use anonymous in-game chats for secret communication. It is understood that a new data-protection law will come into force and make the identification of users obligatory for internet messengers from January 2018 onwards. The law will be extended to cover all users of social media and online games in order to address the problem. Justifying the security measures that will be taken in the national interest, VLADIMIR ZHAROV, head of the Russian internet watchdog, ROSKOMNADZOR refers to the deadly PARIS attacks in November 2015 and says that the terrorists had organized their communications not only through messengers that use encoding but also through the Playstation4.

7. GERMANY. The breakdown of the talks to form a three-way Coalition Government in GERMANY on 20 November 2017 left Europe’s largest economy with two unprecedented options in the post-World War II era. Either Acting Chancellor ANGELA MERKEL of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) forms a minority Government or President FRANK- WALTER SEAMIER calls for a new election, if no Government is formed. Chancellor ANGELA MEKEL was weakened after the September election as voters angry with her decision in 2015 to open GERMANY’s borders to more than a million asylum seekers, turned away from her conservative party by voting for the Alternative for Germany (AFD) far-right party.

| 17 Friday to 24 Friday November 2017|



1. MALDIVES. The Maldivian Minister for Environment and Energy who is also the Chair of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) addressing the recently concluded 23rd Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Climate Change (COP 23) held in BONN, GERMANY from 06-17 November 2017, referred to the unprecedented weather; Hurricanes HARVEY, IRMA, JOSE, MARIA, wildfires in the US and Europe, mass flooding, drought in South Asia, in SRI LANKA and East Africa. He pointed out that collectively the G20 nations account for close to three - quarters of global emissions and unless act in line with their commitments to reduce emissions , global efforts to save the planet will be in vain. He further said that the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) for loss and damage has failed to provide sufficient financing for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) that face unique challenges arising from climate change. Minister IBRAHIM stressed that the COP 23 should figure out how exactly each nations implements its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) on Green House Gas (GHG) reductions since all rich Nations have been benefitting from vast historical GHG emissions, that helped them build the affluence of the modern world. Further that AOSIS states like the MALDIVES that are on the frontline of climate change will suffer through no fault of their own, if G20 nations fail to honour their obligations. Meanwhile scientists warned on 13 November 2017, that GHC emissions are set to rise 2% this year, to a new record.


2. CAMBODIA. The Supreme Court of CAMBODIA dissolved the main opposition party, the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) on 16 November 2017, at the request of the Government of Prime Minister HUN SEN. The Government claims that CNRP leader KEM SOKHA who has been under detention since 03 September 2017, had been planning to take power with American assistance. A 5-year political ban has now been imposed on 118 CNRP members and the Prime Minister who has been in power for over 30 years appealed to rest of the opposition to join his Cambodian People’s Party (CPP). HUN SEN’s critics charge that he is making an attempt to postpone the elections due in 2018, which will be a setback for democracy where the West has spent billions since 1993, to build a multi-party system after decades of war and called for sanctions on CAMBODIA. However, the Government is confident of the support of CHINA, the biggest aid donor and investor in CAMBODIA.


3. SAUDI ARABIA. At a time tensions between Sunni SAUDI ARABIA and Shiite IRAN have been rising, Foreign Ministers of the Arab League gathered in CAIRO, on 19 November 2017, at the request of SAUDI ARABIA to discuss alleged violations committed by IRAN in the region. SAUDI ARABIA refers to the 04 November 2017, Yemeni rebel missile intercepted near RIYADH and a pipeline fire in BAHRAIN on 10 November 2107 and claims that IRAN undermines peace and security in the region and also around the globe. BAHRAIN and the UAE supported the Saudi request for this meeting which was also endorsed by DJIBOUTI, the current Chair of the pan-Arab bloc. The Arab league has 22 members, but SYRIA’s membership was suspended in 2011. After Crown Prince Mohammed BIN SALMAN took over on 21 June 2017, SAUDI ARABIA has been dangerously increasing its anti IRAN rhetoric in many fronts. It seems that SAUDI ARABIA feels politically outsmarted and increasingly overtaken by Iranian moves across the region. Further, the possibility of potential instability in Saudi politics centering on the Saudi Royal family came to light, with the speed and secrecy with which Prince SALMAN, acted to consolidate power with a massive crackdown, that included a large number of Royals. Meanwhile, the Saudi Military campaign in YEMEN has become a deadlock with no end in sight and goes under-reported. IRAN on the other hand has forged a multi-prong and strategically calculated approach to spread its power in the region, while managing its global Diplomacy effectively. The possibility of the rivalry between SAUDI ARABIA and IRAN leading into a war exists and will have global ramifications for which the countries like SRI LANKA should stay prepared.


4. ZIMBABWE. The Military takeover of the Government on 17 November 2017, under the command of General CONSTANTINE CHIWENGA signalled the collapse in less than 36 hours of the Intelligence, Security and Patronage networks that sustained President ROBERT MUGABE’s 37-year autocratic rule in ZIMBABWE since independence, in the former British colony of RHODESIA. The Army’s intervention came following the power struggle in the ruling Zanu-PF party, with the dismissal of Vice President EMMERSON MNANGAGWA, the 75-year old Chinese- trained war veteran and the elevation of MUGABE’s 52- year old wife GRACE MUGABE to succeed the 93-year old President. The Army wanted MUGABE to resign voluntarily, which he did on 21 November 2017, as they wanted to imply that its action was not a Military Coup as the African Union no longer tolerates Military Coups D’état’s. The War Veterans’ Association headed by CHRIS MUTSVANGWA, called for people’s protests that forced MUGABE’s resignation, while the Zanu-PF party removed MUGABE from the leadership and expelled his wife from the party.


5. ITALY. TOTO RIINA, the Sicilian Mafia’s most powerful boss of the 20th century who had been instrumental in demonstrating to the world the way a powerful Mafia could control politics and economy of even in an industrialized nation, died on 16 November 2017, in the prison ward in PARMA, NORTHERN ITALY. He was in jail for a quarter of a century and had been serving 26 life sentences for numerous homicides committed between 1969 and 1992. His victims included the two Magistrates who led the campaign to bring his organized crime group, Cosa Nostra (“Our Thing”) and its Mafia figures to justice. Cosa Nostra was trafficking heroin to North America since the end of World War II and had been controlling the levers of ITALY’s corrupt post-war political system. It was RIINA’s savagery that pushed his mobsters to break their code of silence and testified against him after his arrest in January 1993 following the killing of the two Magistrates.

6. INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC). The US Government responding to the ICC Chief Prosecutor FATOU BENSOUDA’s report issued on 21 November 2017, concerning war crimes committed by the US Armed Forces and the CIA in the Afghan conflict said that, any investigation would not serve the interests of either peace or Justice in AFGHANISTAN and that the US has a national system of investigation and accountability that more than meets international standards. He further said that such an investigation by the ICC would be “wholly unwarranted and unjustifiable”. The ICC report points out that “ US military personnel and CIA appear to have subjected detainees to torture, cruel treatment, outrages upon personal dignity and rape on the territories of AFGHANISTAN and also in POLAND, ROMANIA and LITHUANIA which had secret detention facilities called “Black Sites” between December 2002 and 31 December 2014. The prosecutor after a preliminary examination conducted in AFGHANISTAN for the last 10 years, decided to open up the investigation on her own, in the absence of any request from the state party AFGHANISTAN since the ICC has Jurisdiction over any Rome Statute Crime (War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity, Genocide) committed in member countries. Even though the US is not a member of the ICC, its citizens could still face prosecution if they commit crimes within ICC member countries. Authorization has also been sought from the ICC’s Judiciary to investigate alleged war crimes of the Taliban and the militant group, Haqqani Network and war crimes committed by Afghan National Security Forces.

| 10 Friday to 17 Friday November 2017|



1. MALDIVES. The Maldives Independent, Mihaaru and Colombo Gazette newspapers reported that the controversial Maldivian Parliamentarian RIYAZ RASHEED accused the Government of SRI LANKA (GOSL) for backing potential plans to overthrow the Government of President ABDULLA YAMEEN in collaboration with the Opposition led by former Maldivian President MOHAMED NASHEED who is in exile in the UK. The MP is the Deputy Parliamentary Group Leader of the ruling Progressive Party of MALDIVES and represents the Vilufushi constituency in the ‘THAA ATOLL’. In September 2016, RIYAZ accused the GOSL of harboring ‘Coup Plotters’ after the GOSL’s denied of having any connections with the activities of NASHEED who visits COLOMBO regularly to meet other Opposition figures in exile. The Maldivian Ambassador to SRI LANKA even threatened to detain NASHEED in COLOMBO and deport him to MALDIVES to serve his 13-year jail sentence sometime ago. This compelled NASHEED’s lawyers to express concerns about his safety in SRI LANKA.


2. MYANMAR. MYANMAR is opposed to international intervention in the Rohingya issue and says that the recent joint statement of the UN Security Council and the West will only hamper bilateral negotiations between MYANMAR and BANGLADESH. The MYANMAR Government led by the State Counsellor (Prime Minister) AUNG SAN SUU KYI is using the concept of sovereignty to resist the Western led international pressure stressing that it respects only bilateralism and lauds CHINA and RUSSIA for upholding “the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of sovereign countries”. Meanwhile, the 10-point agreement signed between MYANMAR and BANGLADESH with Chinese mediation last month, included a provision for the repatriation of 600,000 Rohingya refugees seems to be a failure since MYANMAR has informed that it would take back only those who have official documents to prove MYANMAR residency as per a 1992 agreement signed between the two countries. MYANMAR claims that BANGLADESH wants to get more aid from the International community citing continuing refugee presence and opposes continued attempts made by the UNHCR for a permanent settlement plan within BANGLADESH. However the US, West and BANGLADESH will not seek International intervention beyond a certain limit as it might lose the support of CHINA a major investor in BANGLADESH and whose goodwill is necessary to contain NORTH KOREA. The ASEM (Asia Europe Meeting) which consists of 53 countries including US, RUSSIA, CHINA, JAPAN, INDIA, MYANMAR and BANGLADESH is due to assemble in MYANMAR on 20 November 2017 and the ‘Rohingya issue’ will be high on the agenda.

3. THE PHILIPPINES. President RODRIGO DUTERTE while in VIETNAM on 09 November 2017 for the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting said the summit should focus on Human Rights violations globally and not just in the PHILIPPINES. Facing severe criticism from Western Countries and Human Rights groups against his anti-narcotics campaign, DUTERTE renewed his blame against UN Special Rapporteur AGNES CALLAMARD and said if she investigates him for the rising death toll in his war on drugs, he would ask why she has made no comments on the thousands of victims of bombing and violence in the Middle East. President DUTERTE said his country was willing to host a “World Summit” to tackle how nations can protect Human Rights and threatened to ban two American Congressmen from coming to the PHILIPPINES after they criticized President TRUMP for inviting DUTERTE to visit the US.


4. LEBANON. Critics analyzing the recent developments in the Middle East find that the next flash point in the region could be LEBANON, which will adversely affect the economies of countries like SRI LANKA. The Lebanese Prime Minister SAAD HARIRI resigned from his post on 04 November 2017, while on a visit to SAUDI ARABIA and the Lebanese President MICHEL AOUN said on 15 November 2017, that Prime Minister HARIRI is being “held hostage” in an “act of aggression” against LEBANON by SAUDI ARABIA violating the Vienna Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. HARIRI denounced the presence of HEZBOLLAH in the Lebanese Government on 04 November 2017, stoking fears of conflict between the Saudi-backed Sunni faction (March 14-Future Movement Party) and the Iranian-backed Shia umbrella Militant group HEZBOLLAH and its political bloc (March 08) together hold 69 seats in LEBANON’s Parliament. 18 religious sects in LEBANON are also recognized in the Parliament which has 128 seats. According to the Constitution the President must be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of Parliament, a Shia Muslim. The looming conflict has its roots in the shared interest of SAUDI ARABIA and ISRAEL to counter Shia Iran with which Hezbollah is closely allied and controls SOUTHERN LEBANON along ISRAEL’s Northern border as both IRAN and Hezbollah have been involved in the Syrian War as pro ASSAD allies. Critics say that Sunni Arab leaders and Israeli Prime Minister BENJAMIN NETANYAHU imagine that IRAN has a grand plan to establish domination over the whole region and must be stopped by Military force, which will naturally develop into a full-scale Sunni-Shia war.


5. UK. BRITAIN’s new Defence Secretary, GAVIN WILLIAMSON said on 13 November 2017 that it will hunt down and kill British born members of the ISIS with drones. It is estimated that around 850 Britons have left UK to join the ISIS and approximately half of them have returned back. Secretary WILLIAMSON says those who are going to inflict harm to the UK should be completely eliminated and has been supported by the Foreign Office Minister RORY STEWART, who also takes a hard-line stance against the Jihadists and view, assassination is the only way to deal with them. On the other hand, the Government’s independent reviewer of counter-terrorism legislation, MAX HILL QC has warned that such a hard-line stance could put the UK at risk of losing a generation of young people lured by ISIS propaganda and says that MI 5 and others are leaving space for those misguided individuals to be diverted away.


6. US. Political observers say the tone and the outcome of President TRUMPS’s visit to CHINA on 09 and 10 November 2017, had been positive and the he and President XI JINPING were setting a new blueprint for handling relations and managing their differences such as trade and the North Korean Nuclear issue. The Chinese Foreign Ministry think-tank, the China Institute of International Studies stated that, Sino-US cooperation was the only correct choice for both CHINA and the US and the most important outcome from their talks has been the constructive approach to sensitive issues.

| 03 Friday to 10 Friday November 2017|



1. INDIA. International observers say that the experience of 3 years of the NARENDRA MODI Government suggests that nothing has been done to follow up the plan of engagement envisaged by Home Minister RAJNATH SINGH on the JAMMU and KASHMIR issue. RAJNATH SINGH said on 11 September 2017, that a permanent solution to the crisis was based on ‘five Cs’, Compassion, Communication, Coexistence, Confidence Building and Consistency. However, the hard-line approach of the BJP- led Government seems to have stalled the Home Minister’s attempt to reach out to the separatist groups. The effort has only been to delegitimize the political context and content of the agitation in KASHMIR, which is centered around a resolution of the problem. By its own admission, the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) had fired 1.3 million pellets on people at the height of the 2016 summer uprising in KASHMIR. The pellets have left scores of boys and girls without eyesight. PAKISTAN Prime Minister SHAHID KHAQAN ABBASI addressing a conference on “Future of Pakistan 2017” at the London School of Economics on 04 November 2017 said KASHMIR is the “core issue” and relations with INDIA will remain tense until that is solved. Highlighting INDIA’s ‘Cold Start Doctrine’ among other developments, ABBASI said that PAKISTAN has a “deterrent” in place but deterrents, where both sides are Nuclear powers, would not be a solution to any problematic situation and suggested continued talks.


2. NORTH KOREA. The, US Senate Banking Committee in a bipartisan agreement on 09 November 2017 unanimously backed new sanctions against Chinese banks that do business with NORTH KOREA (DPRK) just before DONALD TRUMP’s visit to CHINA on 09 November 2017 after visiting JAPAN and SOUTH KOREA. Addressing the South Korean Parliament on 08 November during his 12-day Asian tour, TRUMP stressed that NORTH KOREA is an oppressed, despotic regime, but offered an alternative if it gives up Nuclear ambitions. Meanwhile, the US Defense Department responding to a Congressional query submitted a report on 04 November 2017, informing that only certain way to locate and secure NORTH KOREA’s Nuclear Weapon sites would be via a US ground invasion. The Pentagon has also done an anticipated casualty assessment in a conflict with NORTH KOREA for US and Allied Forces in JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA and GUAM as well as civilians. It further notes that such a conflict would prompt NORTH KOREA to deploy Biological and Chemical Weapons and seems to be suggesting that there are no Military options for NORTH KOREA. At the moment Pentagon backs the current approach led by Secretary of State REX TILLERSON wielding economic sanctions and applying Diplomatic pressure as a measure of discouraging North Korea’s Military ambitions.


3. SAUDI ARABIA. The Saudi Defense Minister Crown Prince MOHAMMED BIN SALMAN who has amassed enormous power in less than three years since his father KING SALMAN ascended to the throne, is now heading the new anti-corruption committee which had on 04 November 2017, detained 11 Princes and dozens or more Ministers that included Prince MITEB BIN ABDULLAH, the head of the National Guard. It is the powerful force tasked with protecting the ruling Al Saud family and all holy sites in MECCA and MEDINA and Oil and Gas sites. Saudi nationals have been complaining of rampant corruption in the public sector and the country’s top council of clerics endorsed the anti-corruption probe saying that it is an Islamic duty to fight corruption. Meanwhile, SAUDI ARABIA called the attempted Missile strike on Riyadh International Airport on 06 November by IRAN-backed Houthi rebels in YEMEN a “blatant act of Military aggression by IRAN that could be considered as an act of war”. It further, said that SAUDI ARABIA reserves its right to respond to IRAN appropriately based on the right of self-defense. IRAN flatly rejected the Saudi claim as destructive and provocative in a dramatic escalation in tension between the two rival nations. IRAN on 08 November 2017, accused the CIA of spreading “fake news” about a murky relationship between the Sunni extremist group Al Qaeda and Shiite IRAN. The CIA claims that the relevant documents on covert operations of IRAN were found in May 2011 by US Navy Seals who had killed OSAMA BIN LADEN in ABBOTABAD, PAKISTAN. IRAN says all these are parts of efforts “to put pressure on IRAN”.

4. YEMEN. The UN's Humanitarian Chief MARK LOWCOCK, informed the UN Security Council on 08 November 2017, that millions will die in YEMEN, unless the Saudi-led Military alliance ends its Air, Land and Sea blockade of YEMEN, after the Missile attack on 04 November 2017, by the IRAN backed Houthi rebels, and it would be the world’s worst famine crisis in decades surpassing SOUTH SUDAN (2017) and SOMALIA (2011). The conflict has so far killed over 10,000 people and left over 7 million in need of food assistance. Further, the country has an outbreak of cholera epidemic with over 900,000 suspect cases. The closure of all sea and land ports means urgently needed lifesaving medical supplies have ceased. SAUDI ARABIA after its 2015 intervention in the civil war in YEMEN appears to be in a quagmire and says that the blockade is aimed at preventing the smuggling of weapons into YEMEN.


5. UK. Former British Prime Minister GORDON BROWN in his book “My Life, Our Times” published on 31 October 2017, claims that a top secret US Intelligence report which showed there was “no evidence” that IRAQ had access to weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) was not shared with the British Government. Thus, US President GEORGE W. BUSH duped the, then British Prime Minister TONY BLAIR into backing the 2003 Iraqi invasion which had not been sanctioned by the UN Security Council. GORDON BROWN said that BRITAIN would not have invaded IRAQ had the British Government known about the said intelligence report. He further says he was assured by the then MI6 Chief, Sir RICHARD DEARLOVE that IRAQ had WMDs.


6. US. Psychologists continue to warn that terrorists of the ‘Lone Wolf’ type and emotionally unstable individuals could now be prone to taking the cue from the mass murderers in the US (eg: SUTHERLAND SPRINGS, LAS VEGAS) and act on their own in a ‘copy cat effect’ that would be disastrous to any society. Thus, the need has arisen for the states to go to the roots of lawlessness and address the societal or structural causes that give rise to critical law and order crises, while finding legal solutions, curbing the circulation of unauthorized arms and small arms- trafficking. Meanwhile, analysts claim that there are marked differences in the Jihadist attacks taking place in the US and Europe. In Europe, many Jihadists have had community support, an underground network or even a hardline Islamist to guide them as in the twin attacks in SPAIN in August. In the US, in part, a better rooted, more affluent US Muslim community shows no tolerance for anyone exhibiting sympathy for causes like the ISIS or Al Qaeda. Further, the tougher and expansive US laws and more aggressive law enforcement than Europe have also made a big difference. As a result, the aspiring Jihadists in the US are isolated with their ‘on line social media’ links and at times just a few friends known personally which is an important lesson for conflict ridden and post-conflict nations searching for lasting solutions. The 31/10 NEW YORK bike-path attacker, the UZBEK SAIFULLO SAIPOV too is believed to be a self-radicalized individual without an apparent support inside the US and such behavioral patterns might be existing in any society.

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