Centre for Geo Political Studies

| Archive | Login  |

 

  | HOME | ARTICLES BY CGPS  |WEEKLY REVIEW | RESEARCH | VIDEOS | OPINION | MEMBERSHIP | ABOUT US|
 

Beyond Bombings: The Islamic State in Southeast Asia
  |Mon, 18 January 2016 13:20|Security| Page Views : 302



  To understand the group, look at its other tactics.

On 14 January, nine militants staged a barricade style attack at a Starbucks in central Jakarta. Small IEDs were detonated, and the militants engaged security forces for almost two hours. Two civilians, a Canadian and an Indonesian were killed. Five of the attackers were killed and four were arrested. Fortunately Indonesian security forces responded quickly and professionally, mitigating what could have been a much more costly attack that appears to have been perpetrated by the Islamic State or Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

The attack in Jakarta should not have surprised anyone; this type of barricade style attack has been seen from Mumbai to Paris. With low technical requisites and a high probability of spreading fear and garnering media attention, it has been the weapon of choice, including in Southeast Asia.

On 30 June 2015, a Malaysian court convicted a man and his son for fighting with ISIL and planning terrorist incidents at home. But it was not a wave of bombings they were plotting, but rather the kidnapping of politicians. While hostage taking, executions and barricade style attacks garner less concern from security services than bombings, this is potentially an important development at both the tactical and strategic levels for Southeast Asian militants. If we are to understand the real impact of ISIL on Southeast Asian militancy, it is this.

Hostage taking has become the face of ISIL terror in the Middle East. The grisly executions of orange-jumpsuited victims, mimicking Guantanamo Bay uniforms, have become more and more macabre. Dr. John Horgan called the recent execution videos “sadism at a clinical level.” These videos are instantly disseminated across a host of social media platforms, and rather than repulse people tend to broaden the group’s appeal as they try to outbid their rivals, equating sadistic violence with religious zeal.

Likewise, there have been a number of “barricade” style hostage taking events perpetrated by ISIL-inspired militants in Europe and beyond, most spectacularly on 13 November 2015 in Paris in coordinated attacks that left 129 dead. And it is these barricade-style attacks that pose a serious threat in Southeast Asia. As J.M. Berger explained, “Al Qaeda’s love of elegance was a distraction… But in reality, AQAP carried out only a handful of attacks, and at a languid pace, over the course of many years.” But these low-tech, low-cost, and high probability of success attacks are tailor made for those who have fought with ISIL, but have little other experience than as front line troops.

The threat posed by ISIL in Southeast Asia is small but present. There are an estimated 800-1,000 Southeast Asians supporters of ISIS, including those who have traveled to Iraq and Syria, their family members, those killed in battle and arrested, as well as those returned by Turkish security forces. It also includes the first wave that has already returned home to Malaysia and Indonesia. The Soufan Group estimates the number of Southeast Asian combatants to be 600, lower than official regional estimates of 900. Several have returned and plotted or executed attacks, including the first bombing plots in Malaysia and the first attempted chlorine bomb at an Indonesian mall. Already, more Southeast Asians have joined ISIL and the Al Qaeda-linked Al Nusra Front than ever joined the anti-Soviet mujahideen. ISIL has revitalized terror networks in Southeast Asia.

Yet, despite this concern as well as the previous wave of terrorism by the Al Qaeda-linked Jemaah Islamiyah, there has been very little use of hostage taking, beheading, or barricade-style attacks as a tactic by Southeast Asian militant groups. That should be expected to change, with the success of ISIL, the proliferation of their ideology, and return of veterans from Syria over the coming few years.

A Look At Southeast Asian Militant Groups

The Abu Sayyaf

The exception to this is the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) that has routinely engaged in both kidnapping and beheading since the early 1990s. But even with the ASG, hostage taking comes in two forms: kidnapping for ransom to raise funds, and hostage taking with no ransom but the execution/beheading of its captives to try to demonstrate their limited ideological bona fides. As the group has become increasingly desperate, while at the same time influenced by ISIL, it has stepped up its threats of beheading to raise ransoms.

From the 1990s to around 2004, abductions were largely to raise funds. In 2001, they beheaded an American hostage. That year, they beheaded nine of 30 Christian hostages in order to force a halt to government offensive. But almost all other hostages were released after a ransom was paid or rescued.

From 2004-07, the ASG had reached out to Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) and apparently had enough international support that it all but stopped kidnappings. The hostages it did take in that period of time, it executed. In 2007, for example, it beheaded seven road workers on a USAID project on Jolo and 14 Philippine Marines on Basilan, without any ransom demands, but rather to demonstrate their Islamist bona fides. The ASG did decapitate five Philippine Marines in 2011, but that was widely seen as an attempt to get the government to halt its offensive.

But since then, the group has devolved. There has been a steady stream of kidnappings, but ransoms have been paid and people have been released. Recently the ASG has increased the number of foreign hostages, but only because they pay more than local Filipinos, who garner ransoms in the $20-30,000 range.

The ASG routinely target Chinese and Malaysians – and Europeans when they avail themselves because they command higher ransoms. Since 2014, there have been a spate of raids into Malaysia’s Sabah state, including the kidnapping of a policeman; but the issue is only over how much of a ransom to be paid to secure his release. The usual demand for Malaysians and Chinese is 5 million pesos ($108,000). They had demanded 30 million pesos each for two Malaysians, whom they threatened to behead. One paid and was released, the other was beheaded on 17 November. A former Australian captive reportedly paid $100,000 to secure his release.

One ASG leader, Isnilon Hapilon, made a YouTube oath of bai’yat to the self-proclaimed Islamic State caliphate. But this was nothing more than a publicity stunt. For example, soon after the oath, the ASG threatened to behead one of their two German hostages captured in April 2014 to force Berlin to leave the anti-ISIL coalition. Despite one of the hostages being photographed sitting in his own grave in front of a ISIL flag, those demands were instantly dropped with the alleged payment of $1.35 million in ransom, but with no concession by the Germans on ending their participation in the campaign in Syria. ISIL imagery and the threat of a beheading were solely to add a sense of urgency.

While recent kidnappings of locals – including women and children – has increased, all have been released with payment of ransom, most in relatively short periods of time; the ASG is simply “turning over the inventory.” According to my open source dataset, between January 2014 to October 2015, there were 31 kidnappings, and in that time, 34 people were either released or escaped, including two children. The most recent case was of a Philippine mining executive, who was reported to have paid 1.3 million pesos ($27,600) to secure her release.

The ASG currently hold two members of the Philippine Coast Guard whom they have threatened to behead, but only if their ransom demands are not met. Indeed, on 11 August, a village chief who was abducted along with them was found decapitated after the deadline for his ransom payment had expired.

On 21 September 2015, ASG gunmen staged a logistically complex but well executed raid on a luxury resort in Davao, kidnapping four, including three westerners and a Filipina. On 13 October, the ASG released a video showing the four sitting in front of two ISIL flags in a jungle clearing on YouTube (since taken down).

The video was interesting for a few reasons. First, it was the first time I recall seeing an ASG video with hostages, or certainly such a well-scripted one. Second, the hostages were on message: articulating what needed to be done to secure their safety and have ransom negotiations commence. Third, though there was no mention of a beheading, one hostage clearly had a knife held at his throat.

What was most evident is that they have clearly been watching IS videos, which have set a new standard for propaganda and messaging. The spokesman was very well-spoken and articulate, especially considering how poor and uneducated most run-of-the-mill ASG types are. This really looked as though it was the dress rehearsal for an ISIL-style on camera beheading.

But despite the ISIL imagery and influence, there is no ideological component to these abductions. A second video, released on 3 November, simply stated the exorbitant demand of 1 billion pesos ($21 million) for the release of each of the four. And it’s also important to understand that their use has much to do with which faction of the disparate ASG is responsible for the abductions. Only one or two cells have adapted ISIL-style propaganda and imagery.

In all, the ASG have beheaded roughly 40 captives since the early-1990s, all in an attempt to prove their jihadist bona fides. But at the end of the day, it is primarily about money. The reality is that hostage taking is not a Philippine issue. It is really an ethnic Tausig issue, where kidnapping and piracy are culturally rooted.

While the ASG is mainly in it for the money, they remain a low level irritant, but can play a role in the regional spread of ISIL. In December 2015 Philippine security forces killed a Malaysian member of ISIL – a known bomb maker and assistant to a top Malaysian ISIL operative – in a clash with the ASG. The constant inability of the Philippine government to secure its territory gives ISIL that important rear area to train.

There have been other kidnappings in the Philippines, but exclusively for ransom payments. The most notable group that did his was the Pentagon Gang in central Mindanao. There has never been consensus on whether Pentagon was simply a kidnap for ransom gang, a group that operated but kicked back funds to the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), or themselves members of the MILF. Regardless, once the peace process took root, the MILF became a responsible stakeholder and the Pentagon Gang all but ceased to operate. The MILF may have abetted or profited from kidnapping, but they officially condemned the practice as “un-Islamic.”

There is a concern that other Moro splinter groups are being motivated or have pledged allegiance to ISIL. The Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Front, which split from the MILF over the peace process, in 2007, has publicly pledged allegiance to ISIL, and routinely engages in sectarian pogroms, such as the Christmas 2014 attack in central Mindanao that left 14 Christians dead. Likewise, a new group, Ansar Khalifa Philippines, issued a recent video of a training camp, in which recruits trained in front of ISIL’s black flags. Again, this is most likely a way for a small and little known group to garner media attention, donations and recruits.

Jemaah Islamiyah

Other militant groups in Southeast Asia have largely eschewed hostage taking. The regional Al Qaeda affiliate, Jemaah Islamiyah, and its myriad of Salafist splinters, eagerly assassinated and bombed, but they never adopted hostage taking as a tactic.

In 2005, Noordin Mohammed Top broke off from JI’s leadership that had turned against targeting the far enemy and established “Al Qaeda in the Malay Archipelago.” But even as he started to emulate Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, his cell never adopted the brutal tactic of hostage taking and beheading as practiced by Al Qaeda in Iraq.

In 2009-10, another JI cell tried to bridge the crippling divide between Top’s pro-Al Qaeda wing and those who advocated renewed sectarian violence, by pushing for low cost/high impact barricade style hostage attacks influenced by the Lashkar e-Taiba’s 2008 takeover of the Trident and Oberoi hotels in Mumbai, India. This cell was broken up and more than 125 members were killed or arrested, its leaders killed and/or imprisoned, and nothing more came of it. But it was embraced as a cost-effective, high probability tactic.

Another JI splinter beheaded three Christian schoolgirls in 2006 in order to provoke a new round of sectarian conflict. The schoolgirls were not taken hostage, nor was this glorified in jihadist media or video-taped. This group evolved into the Mujihideen Indonesia Timur (MIT), currently the most lethal of all the JI successor organizations, whose leader, Santoso, pledged bai’yat to ISIL in 2014.

On 17 September 2015, MIT beheaded three Hindu transmigrants in Central Sulawesi. Again, there was no attempt to ransom the hostages. It was an act meant solely to terrorize; the bodies were the message to the community, not a gruesome propaganda video for the ummah’s consumption. MIT is clearly a group to watch as it is gaining attention in international jihadist circles. But for the most part, their attacks are very much directed at security forces or local Hindus.

Southern Thailand Insurgents

In southern Thailand, where some 6,500 people have been killed and nearly 12,000 wounded since 2004, the Malay insurgents have only taken one hostage, a Marine private whom they executed in April 2013. But there is evidence that this was a very personal and targeted attack. The marine was a Muslim who had been used to leak information to the insurgents that led to a failed attack, in which 16 insurgents were killed; their single most costly attack since 2004. Malay insurgents have never abducted anyone again. In part, the local community saw it as beyond the pale, but many saw the fierce reaction of the government and feared that such tactics could be counterproductive to the insurgency.

And yet, the insurgents – conservative Sha’afis, but not Salafists – do use beheadings as a tactic to terrorize the Buddhist community. Since 2004, there have been over 40 beheadings, most recently in April 2014. But the rate has dropped: there have only been 12 beheadings since 2009 according to my open-source database; and almost all have been decapitated after being killed. Likewise, insurgents frequently desecrate corpses by setting them on fire or mutilating them. For example, insurgents set two couples that they killed in incidents in April and May 2015 on fire.

But here again, these are done without any media attention and no one has been taken hostage; it is simply gratuitous violence to terrorize the Buddhist community. Perhaps there is little reason to film or glorify these grisly acts as the insurgents remain so shadowy and unwilling to have a 21st century media campaign.

Moreover, in a series of author interviews conducted in October and November 2014 and February 2015, insurgents revealed that they are under pressure from both their constituents and Islamic clergy to stop the beheadings and desecrations. Militants found such attacks to be very effective in sowing terror amongst the Buddhist population that they seek to drive from the region, but have largely complied with the directive from religious leaders.

And while ISIL has absolutely no role in the insurgency, its propaganda is increasingly being shared amongst Malay youth in southern Thailand and now routinely includes Thai subtitles. There is a concern that younger militants frustrated with the pace and scope of the insurgency are showing a willingness to escalate the violence.

Assessing the Impact of ISIL

The success of ISIL since 2014 has revived the threat of terrorism in Malaysia and Indonesia. It has led to an estimated 600-1,000 Southeast Asians to travel to Syria and Iraq to gain jihadist experience and given a new generation of members a pedestal. Some 169 Indonesians alone have been turned back by Turkish authorities, and many more cannot get to Syria and Iraq because of the logistical logjam caused by proactive measures by regional security forces.

But ISIL has increased the rate of indoctrination and induction. Importantly they have broadened the traditional base of JI’s recruitment, and have members representing the entire spectrum of society, including women. Some, such as the MIT and Ba’asyir’s Jemmah Anshaur Tauhid (JAT), have publicly pledged bai’yat to ISIL. (In early January, Ba’asyir, through his lawyer, renounced his ties to ISIL, but that came just days before his 12 January court hearing to appeal for an early release for his 2011 conviction for supporting JI’s Aceh training camp).

And ISIL’s slick and Hollywood visual style propaganda, increasingly in Bahasa, has had great appeal and influence over Southeast Asian militants. To date, Southeast Asian jihadists, other than the ASG, have never engaged in hostage taking, and no group has videotaped the act of decapitation or glorified it. As ISIL videos are viewed and shared, the threshold lowers and their base of support no longer finds it to be anathema to Southeast Asian culture.

And as Charlie Winters has argued, what we see as grotesque barbarism in ISIL videos, its supporters see “triumphalism and vengeance” against those who have harmed their interpretation of Islam. “Islamic State’s most brutal propaganda serves as a vehicle by which to convey vengeance and supremacy,” says Winters. And such acts are well suited to be disseminated through social media, which in Southeast Asia have some of the highest rates of use in the world.

There is a concern that the returnees from Iraq and Syria will have acquired the skills to carry out a new wave of bombings. One cell was in the final stages of preparing to bomb the Carlsberg brewery in Kuala Lumpur. Of greater concern, suspected returnees were responsible for an attempted chlorine bomb at a Jakarta mall in February 2015. In September 2015, both the U.S. and Australian embassies in Kuala Lumpur issued very specific warnings of terrorist attacks, and a three man cell was arrested soon after. It was the third active plot in Kuala Lumpur, which saw no active JI plots during that group’s reign of terror in the decade following the Bali bombing in 2002.

And while the specter of mass casualty bombings is not to be trivialized, focusing on it may miss the more immediate threat posed by ISIL cells or inspired individuals. Most Southeast Asians fighting for ISIL have been used as cannon fodder, which is a point not sufficiently recognized or exploited. Very few are going to return home with advanced bomb-making or terrorism skills. Not everyone returns a Dr. Azahari. Yet most have sufficient training in small arms and a willingness to martyr themselves.

Thus, there is a well-founded fear that the spectacle of violence demonstrated by ISIL will take root, because of the low technical capacity of the returnees and the need to perpetrate bold attacks both to win over popular support and to assume the leadership of a dispersed, leaderless movement.

Hostage taking and barricade style attacks, are perfect for both the skill set and the short-term goals of ISIL. And unlike bombings, which are indiscriminate, kidnappings, executions and assassinations are very targeted. Malaysian security officials have stated, though without providing evidence, that ISIL members are actively targeting senior politicians and security officials.

The case of Malaysians Murad Halimmuddin (49) and his son Abu Daud (25), who were plotting to kidnap politicians after returning home from fighting with ISIL, is a case in point. But they were not alone; their cell included four others.

Another small cell that included one returnee from Syria, which Malaysian authorities broke up in July 2015, was also planning a wave of non-bombing terrorist attacks. The cell intended to target VIPs and engage in barricade-style attacks that have been recently used in Sydney, Paris and Tunisia.

More importantly, two Malaysians, Mohd Faris Anwar (20) and Muhamad Wandy Muhamad Jedi (26), were featured in in a grisly ISIL video of mass beheadings released on 20 February 2015. Though it caused fear amongst the national leadership, the video was widely shared across social media platforms in the region. If people were shocked by the act, they were quiet about it, as there was little public backlash. Though Mohd Faris Anwar was killed in Syria in late 2015, his brutality remains widely disseminated on line.

In mid-December 2015, Indonesian authorities arrested six suspected members of ISIL and JI who were planning a wave of bombs and small arm attacks on Christian and Shia communities. The plot had direct funding from ISIL, according to Indonesian security officials.

Russian authorities have recently passed intelligence – though one certainly can question its veracity – to Thai authorities regarding an ISIL cell dispatched to Thailand to perpetrate barricade style attacks against Russian tourists.

Conclusion

Most Southeast Asians will never see hostage taking as a legitimate act. Indeed, Malaysians look to the ASG kidnappings in Sabah as a sign of the lawlessness of the Philippines, not as anything part of a legitimate ideological struggle. Kidnapping has de-legitimized the group in the eyes of many.

Moreover, “disappearances” are things more often attributed to state security agencies across the region. Most militants want to distance themselves from the practices of these instruments of state oppression.

But hostage taking and beheading could appeal to a certain segment inspired by or themselves returned from fighting with ISIL. As we saw in France on 26 June 2015, a single beheading of a captive, got enormous media attention. And well executed barricade-style attacks such as in Paris on 13 November 2015 garner enormous media attention.

For a small cell with limited technical capacity to pull off a sophisticated bombing, including lone wolves merely inspired by ISIL, a kidnapping and beheading or barricade style attack is cheap, simple, easy to disseminate, and would instantly garner massive public attention. Moreover, it would help that group stand apart from rival militants by “out bidding” them through violence to prove their jihadist credentials; essential as Islamist militants have never been as fractured as they are today.

Security forces in the region may also have to brace for a wave of targeted assassinations of foreigners, as what happened on 28 September 2015 in Bangladesh, when ISIL militants gunned down an Italian aid worker. While not as headline grabbing as bombings, they are low cost, low risk, and effective.

ISIL is ultimately containable and their sheer brutality and limited governance arguably sows the seeds of their long-term demise. And yet, in the short-run, their brutal tactics and savagery may be emulated by affiliates and groups hoping to outbid their rivals and consolidate leadership of the jihadist movement. And as they continue to gain adherents and followers in Southeast Asia, their tactics will be replicated.

By Zachary Abuza


 Comments

 Comments

Name
Email
Comments

                                     

             

 
Most Popular In News
Fearured
ASEAN and the EEU: Close to Free Trade Zone? (345)

India Sends Stealth Warships to South China Sea (330)

Al-Qaeda wants to execute Microsoft founder Bill Gates to 'damage US economy' (345)

Monsanto, Dow, Syngenta: rush for mega-mergers puts food security at risk (2004)

'No Rohingya': Behind the US Embassy Protest in Myanmar (314)

Dharamsala Conference: Message To China And Pakistan (307)

Rice and rice products may expose infants to arsenic (347)

A Vision of Reform in Saudi Arabia (318)

The South China Sea: Vietnam's Limited Diplomatic Options (302)

North Korea Tests Solid-Fuel Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (319)

In Ukraine, the Cycle of Uncertainty Churns On (324)

German far-right party to 'rebrand itself' as anti-Muslim (315)

US Navy officer charged with spying for China and Taiwan (298)

ASEAN Launches New Military Medicine Center (257)

Thailand’s Junta Digs In (294)

China, Cambodia Ink New Economic Pact (285)

RICHARD BRANSON: There was 'sadly nothing I could do to stop' Alaska Air's takeover of Virgin America (368)

The world may have too much food (301)

After Lahore: The Truth About Terrorism and Pakistan (461)

Asia and the Middle East lead rise in arms imports; the United States and Russia remain largest arms exporters (221)

Middle East Conflict Risks Overspill into the Caucasus (287)

Seven projects around the world that protect soil (363)

Breaking the Silence: Indonesia Vs. China in the Natuna Islands (273)

Isis's backup plan to retreat to Libya is falling apart (358)

Isis offensive kills 'at least 24' Iraqi troops in suicide bombing as more US Marines dispatched (327)

Why President Obama Won’t Meet With Fidel Castro (478)

Making Sense of Pakistan’s Intelligence Tip-off to India (313)

Global Water Shortage Risk Is Worse Than Scientists Thought (348)

Deterring China: US Army to Stockpile Equipment in Cambodia and Vietnam (916)

74 PERCENT OF POOR PEOPLE DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY LAND DEGRADATION (330)

Russia-China: The West’s Dual Challenge (366)

Why Sanctions Won’t Stop North Korea (2021)

The Pacific Nuclear Test Cases (270)

Spy Vs. Spies: Why Deciphering Putin Is So Hard For U.S. Intelligence (282)

Japan’s Deadliest Sub to Join Australia’s Navy in Military Drill (237)

Will the US Station Long-Range Heavy Bombers in Australia? (366)

Technology can help resolve South Asia’s fishing wars (414)

Europe to become an energy battlefield between Russia and the US (377)

Philippines impounds N. Korean ship under UN sanctions (274)

How Israel Navigated through the Hurricane of the Syrian Civil War (277)

Norway's Radioactive Reindeer are a Result of the 30-Year-Old Chernobyl Disaster (317)

Russia and Turkey, on the slippery slope to direct confrontation (303)

US Air Force unveils picture of new stealth bomber (258)

U.S. to test-fire ICBM amid strategic tensions with Russia, North Korea (227)

China Warns THAAD Deployment Could Destroy South Korea Ties 'in an Instant' (240)

Freshwater biodiversity has positive impact on global food security (1962)

The Syrian Cauldron Boils Over (390)

US-China Relations: In the Shadow of Conspiracy Theories (291)

El Nino Could Create Food Shortages Across Africa and Asia Next Year (240)

The Islamic State Threat Is Real in Pakistan (1949)

Automated farming: good news for food security, bad news for job security? (294)

Pentagon: Russia agreed not to strike US forces in Syria (286)

Pakistan: What Stands in CPEC’s Way? (239)

US Wants Expanded Naval Protocol Amid China’s South China Sea Assertiveness (417)

Egypt's 'Security Threat': Churches (364)

Improved irrigation backed to halve food gap (397)

Should Radical Islamists Be Segregated in Prison? (438)

World hunger: what are the most undernourished countries? (408)

Turkey and Saudi Arabia: to fight or to flight? (333)

Troops betrayed as Army dumps hundreds of heroic war dogs (236)

International responses to ISIS (360)

How a Clinton staffer ‘blackmailed’ reporters (222)

Message to Putin as U.S. ups NATO ante in Eastern Europe (2167)

David Cameron scrambles to beef up puny EU deal (364)

Is India Prepared to Prevent Sea-Borne Terrorist Infiltration? (420)

If the world’s soils keep drying out that’s bad news for microbes (and people) (316)

EU deal does not go far enough in curbing migration (240)

US welcomes Saudi troop offer for Syria: FM (232)

Is Assad's Russian-backed Offensive a Game-changer in Syria? (273)

Pakistan Will Provide 'Special Force' to Defend Chinese Investments (407)

FBI Arrests Nearly Every Single Elected Official In A Texas Town (259)

Vietnam’s Master Plan for the South China Sea (230)

People Have A 'Fundamental Right' To Own Assault Weapons, Court Rules (233)

Nearly All' Australian Patrols in South China Sea Are Challenged by China (289)

U.S. Fortifying Europe’s East to Deter Putin (227)

US Officials: Hillary's Emails Contain Names of Undercover CIA Spies (230)

China Rejects Latest US FONOP in the South China Sea (281)

New era dawns as Suu Kyi's party strides into Myanmar parliament (286)

What Does 2016 Hold for China-US Relations in Cyberspace? (387)

Incentivizing Multilateralism in the South China Sea (241)

Now our troops face being hounded in court by the TALIBAN: Iraq witch-hunt lawyers set sights on Afghan claims (324)

No Prosperity for Iran after Nuclear Deal (323)

Indonesia to Boost Deradicalization After Islamic State Attack (269)

On 29th anniversary of Challenger disaster, NASA's day of remembrance (229)

GMO crops totally banned in Russia... powerful nation blocks Monsanto's agricultural imperialism and mass poisoning of the population (228)

Indonesia: Staying Calm and Carrying On (226)

Davos, Lavrov and Kerry, and the role of Qatar in Syria (233)

Malaysia to Launch New Center to Counter Islamic State Messaging in May (326)

Why India Is Getting Serious About Its Relationship with Israel (289)

The North Korean Nuclear Test and the US-Japan Alliance (306)

Another Arab Spring is coming to Egypt (232)

U.S. blizzard to cause multi-billion dollar losses: report (256)

Carbon dioxide causing 'intoxication' of ocean fish sooner than expected (2003)

Ban Ki-moon gathers heads of state for political response to water scarcity (234)

One of America's most respected former military officials is worried about the 2016 presidential field (246)

French prime minister warns Cameron that EU reform won't come at any price (306)

Terror in Afghanistan and Pakistan Underlines Importance of Trust, Peace Talks (304)

So Far, So Close? EU-China Network Diplomacy (312)

Singapore Cracks Down on Bangladeshi Terror Cell (265)

How Will Mainland China Respond to Taiwan’s Elections? (306)

Arabs in the eye of history (303)

Mogamma: Egypt's other great pyramid (238)

Beyond Bombings: The Islamic State in Southeast Asia (302)

The Pathankot Airbase Attack and the Future of India-Pakistan Relations (311)

The personal touch: Zarif, Kerry and 10 US sailors (241)

Scientist sound alarm over hydropower’s impact on tropical fish biodiversity (263)

Revealed: China's Blueprint for Building Middle East Relations (309)

Inside The Unbelievable Arrest Of El Chapo (269)

South Korea, US mull further strategic deployment after North test (338)

Low-Hanging Fruit: the Fight for Food Security (240)

US flies B-52 bomber over South Korea after North’s N-test (325)

FBI’s new animal abuse database may also predict and prevent violent crime against people (933)

Iran and Saudi Arabia: The art of Islamic tolerance (335)

A Preview of China-Southeast Asia Relations in 2016 (284)

Why ISIS is the winner in Saudi Arabia-Iran row (329)

Narendra Modi’s Foreign Policy: Hits and Misses of 2015 (368)

China, Taiwan Apply Pressure to Japan Over 'Comfort Women' Issue (264)

One U.S. service member killed, two wounded in Afghanistan (284)

El Niño Is Still Growing And Set To Get Even Stronger In The Next Few Months (246)

Cambodia Marks Milestone in UN Peacekeeping Contributions (362)

Feds Sue Volkswagen Over Diesels In Sign Of Stand-Off (296)

Attacks Threaten India-Pakistan Thaw (271)

2016: Promising Year For Military Of Russia (267)

Earth has lost a third of arable land in past 40 years, scientists say (268)

Putin Signs New Security Strategy Warning Of Heightened Risks From West (2122)

The Strategic Importance of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (280)

What Made Headlines in Southeast Asia in 2015? (348)

Aid agencies warn of global food crisis in early 2016 (2134)

Can South Asia Make Nice in 2016? (301)

Turkey’s foreign policy prospects for 2016 not so promising (240)

CPEC: A Bad Deal for the Baloch People? (316)

Hunger threatens millions as El Niño causes drought and floods (266)

Turkey's Islamist Agenda in Kosovo (274)

Congress wants NASA to build a deep space habitat for astronauts, and finish it by 2018 (298)

The top 5 food and agriculture stories in 2015 (289)

US-Russia-relations in 2015: From confrontation to limited cooperation (2157)

In Russia, Indian PM Looks to Close Major Defense Deals (271)

How NATO Advises Afghanistan’s National Security Forces (278)

Addressing fault-lines within the Saudi-led coalition (230)

Chinese medicinal herbs provide niche market for US farmers (287)

Muslims in Kenya offer a Christmas present to the world (2151)

Climate change and the right to food (293)

Malaysia Eyes Top Tier of US Human Trafficking Report by 2020 (320)

Turkey: Is Russia Ready To Play The Kurdish Card? (303)

WTO trade ministers move to eliminate agriculture export subsidies, but differences remain on other measures (2091)

Peace Talks Between the Afghan Government and the Taliban Could Be Back in Early 2016 (313)

EU extends sanctions against defiant Russia (293)

Bashir says Sudan’s interests in the Red Sea “being targeted” (255)

The unintended casualty of climate change debate – global food security (319)

Understanding Pakistan’s Role in the Saudi-Led Anti-Terror Coalition (293)

Russia Is Better Ally For US Than Turkey: American Analyst (267)

US says bombers didn't intend to fly over China-held island (270)

Chile and the Southeast Pacific (267)

Better Tech, Not More Food, Will Keep the World’s Poor Fed (289)

The Regional Dimensions Of Security Closer To The Heart Of Asia (296)

U.S. delivers new ammunition to Syrian rebels (269)

China, Russia Try to Brave Economic Headwinds (296)

Russia’s Military Weakness Is Illusion (240)

Do US Presidential Candidates Care About South Asia? (306)

America surrenders on Assad, and Putin wins again (298)

Rethinking North Korean Missile Capabilities (287)

Public Pressure and Allies in Congress Keep “Rider” Blocking State Labeling of GMOs Out of Spending Bill (264)

China’s Unilateral Assertiveness ‘Unacceptable’ in Asia: US Navy Commander (250)

US, India Boost Security Ties in Defense Minister Visit (321)

Saudi Arabia forms Muslim 'anti-terrorism' coalition (232)

Is this the REAL face of Jesus? Forensic experts use ancient Semite skulls to reveal what Christ may have looked like (423)

Australia, Japan, US drop food, toys on Pacific islands (316)

FAO: Policies must work toward food security, hunger elimination (333)

China Pushes Afghanistan, Pakistan Back Toward Peace Process (313)

Friendship of tiger and goat tugs at Russia's heartstrings (317)

China’s Military Reforms and Risk Escalation (307)

Playing with fear (269)

Achieving Food Security and Nutrition for those Furthest Behind In an Era of Climate Change (354)

Abe's Upcoming India Visit: Breaking New Ground in Japan-India Relations (317)

Is a Chinese National Fighting Against Islamic State in Syria? (263)

Singapore Warns of Islamic State Terror Nexus in Southeast Asia (314)

US envoy to Thailand being investigated for royal defamation (327)

Align trade and agricultural development policies better to achieve food security (309)

Russia gave warning of Syria cruise missile strikes, US says (310)

Should NATO Consider Bringing Russia In? (282)

Is Food Security Breaking Through in Paris Climate Talks? (351)

Poland Fuels NATO vs. Russia Nuclear War (330)

US, Singapore Agree Spy Plane Deployment Amid South China Sea Tensions (307)

US, Singapore Agree Spy Plane Deployment Amid South China Sea Tensions (2088)

Sharia courts in Britain 'lock women into marital captivity and do not officially report domestic violence' says academic (293)

Malaysia Wants Expanded Naval Protocol Amid South China Sea Disputes (323)

China and the Curious Case of the OPM Hack (293)

The New China-Africa Relations: 4 Trends to Watch (315)

Israel’s covert involvement in Syria conflict to escalate (289)

Pentagon chief to military: Open all combat jobs to women (853)

ISIS Plans Terror Attacks In UK For Airstrikes (395)

China, Bangladesh Pledge Deeper Military Cooperation (346)

Climate talks: 4C rise will have dire effect on world hunger, UN warns (295)

Suu Kyi meets Myanmar president, army chief for power shift talks (349)

Sino-Indian Border Talks Not Enough to Defuse Tensions (362)

Russia Picks Nuclear Allies For Imminent War With NATO (318)

South Asian Leaders Meet on Sidelines of Paris Climate Talks (298)

US Special Operations Forces Expanding in Iraq to Battle ISIS (317)

Amid South China Sea Tensions, Japan Strengthens Ties With Philippines, Vietnam (326)

The India-Nepal Crisis (319)

5 Ways Russian Sanctions Can Hurt Turkey’s Economy (262)

U.S. tightens visa waiver program in wake of Paris attacks (327)

Why the Paris Attacks May Signal the European Union's Final Fracture (343)

New South China Sea Lighthouses: Legal Futility and Strategic Risk (327)

Obama’s legacy on climate is at stake in Paris talks (297)

Does India Have Lessons for China and the South China Sea? (283)

Washington backs early Kabul-Taliban talks (328)

Will downing of Russian plane see Russia-Turkey divorce? (270)

Russia Deploys Ground Troops In Syria (323)

Preventable errors led to hospital attack, military says (303)

Range of Frustrations Reached Boil as Turkey Shot Down Russian Jet (315)

Chinese State Firm Takes Control of Strategically Vital Gwadar Port (349)

Russia Turning Arctic Into Large Military Base (286)

What is the U.S. Strategy to Fight ISIS? (309)

US Cyber Command’s Veiled Threat: China ‘Vulnerable’ in Cyberspace (292)

India and Russia: A Course Correction (301)

I saw thousands and thousands of people in New Jersey cheer the 9/11 attacks says Donald Trump (318)

A taste of tomorrow - food security in the future (335)

China is on ‘High Alert’ for Japan’s ‘Intervention’ in South China Sea (390)

Geopolitics Is Back—and Global Governance Is Out (233)

Hungry people forced into downward spiral by disasters - UN (317)

After Paris Attacks, China Seeks More International Help Fighting Xinjiang Separatists (2043)

Hero police dog walks to her death: Heartbreaking photo shows Diesel just moments before she was killed by woman suicide bomber in Paris siege (327)

$1.4tn a year needed to reach global goals for world's poorest (304)

Can China Rebuild Its ‘Special Relationship’ With Malaysia? (281)

The Forthcoming ‘Heart Of Asia’ Conference (374)

Chilling new face of police in Britain: New counter terrorism 'robocops' dressed in military fatigues and armed with semi-automatic rifles deployed at Wembley (345)

El Niño: food shortages, floods, disease and droughts set to put millions at risk (287)

China and US Hold Joint Naval Exercise (360)

Bangladesh: Dangerous Resurgence (2152)

The Hypocrisy of US Freedom of Navigation Operations in the South China Sea (389)

Paris attacks deepen GOP opposition to Syrian refugee influx (324)

The battle against impunity goes on (298)

ISIL and the illusion of a clash of civilizations (314)

How Will Myanmar's Elections Affect Relations With China? (322)

Obama and Putin's power huddle: The two most powerful men in the world hold 30-minute meeting hunched over a coffee table at G20 after the president vowed to 'redouble' fight against ISIS (390)

Slow death in oceans from millions of tons of plastic waste (298)

Radical panelists at 'Quiz a Muslim' event demanded establishment of an Islamic State in Britain as jihadists went on bloody rampage through Paris (350)

AP Newsbreak: Iraq warned of attacks before Paris assault (320)

Iraq Warned Countries Fighting ISIS of Imminent Attack (2017)

China's Potential Pitfalls #5: The United States (373)

The Road to a US-Pakistan Nuclear Deal Begins in Islamabad (291)

Myanmar’s Opposition Clinches Majority in Historic Election Win (431)

44 Reasons to Ban or Label GMOs (2106)

Indonesia’s Jokowi to Skip APEC in the Philippines (396)

Russia’s Military Arrives In North Korea (353)

Did China Try Restricting US Bombers in the South China Sea? (272)

PM Modi’s ABC Approach To Kashmir (408)

Veteran suicide: the stories behind the statistics (377)

Why ASEAN Should Celebrate Myanmar's Election (387)

Plane crash, scandals and British-Egyptian relations (288)

Burundi leaders warned to stop inciting mass violence (295)

Myanmar’s Elections: What Now? (429)

Floods, Riots in Mock 2026 Food Crisis Test Government Response (316)

China Seeks to Woo ASEAN Through Singapore (319)

Bihar Says No to the BJP: What Now? (312)

Trouble on Christmas Island (403)

Reconciling China’s PLAN: Strategic Intervention, Tactical Engagement (358)

Turmoil in India-Nepal Ties as China Moves In (378)

Food policy: Cutting waste, broadening systems (370)

A Generals’ Election in Myanmar (402)

Canada now has the world's most Sikh cabinet (404)

Bangladesh’s Terrorist Problem (392)

The China-Russia-Mongolia Trilateral Gains Steam (331)

World food prices had their biggest monthly jump since July 2012 (302)

Why the US Navy's First South China Sea FONOP Wasn't a FONOP (408)

Syria war: A turning point in Russia-West relations? (2002)

Kidnapped UN workers released by South Sudan rebels (295)

Aluminium threat to food security revealed (306)

What China's 'Militarization' of the South China Sea Would Actually Look Like (409)

EU Migrant Crisis: Focus On Hungary (370)

China Blocked ASEAN Defense Meeting Pact Amid South China Sea Fears: US Official (2067)

Climate change poses ‘major threat’ to food security, warns UN expert (335)

The Unintended Consequences of the US Freedom of Navigation Operations in the South China Sea (321)

Russia Sends Troops To NATO Borders (2047)

GE Soybeans Give Altered Milk and Stunted Offspring, Researchers Find (272)

China Holds Bilateral Talks With South Korea, Japan (376)

Climate change making food crops less nutritious, research finds (326)

Obama orders Special Forces troops into Syria (445)

US, NATO vs. Russia War Will Be The End Of Humanity (446)

A First: Japanese and US Navies Hold Exercise in South China Sea. (369)

In China, Germany's Merkel Talks Trade, Syria, and South China Sea (2106)

More than 800,000 refugees returning to Syria as Putin obliterates Islamic State (263)

In Maldives, VP Arrested in Connection With Possible Assassination Attempt on President (388)

China-U.K. Deal: A Threat To The West? (311)

U.S. jets intercept Russian planes near USS Ronald Reagan (393)

China naval chief says minor incident could spark war in South China Sea (349)

Can the US and China Cooperate on the First (and Last) Line of Cyber Defense? (363)

Australia Lagging in Cyber War. (421)

The Islamic State Weighs in on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (312)

United Nations Votes 191-2 To Condemn US Embargo Against Cuba (391)

Beating climate change is key to making nutritious food needed to beat hunger (358)

How China Maintains Strategic Ambiguity in the South China Sea (314)

CIA chief 'outraged' by personal email hack (394)

Processed Meats Classified As Carcinogens By World Health Organization (300)

Indonesia Calls for South China Sea Restraint Amid US-China Tensions. (318)

China's Big Week for European Diplomacy (241)

Will the new deal end conflict in South Sudan? (296)

Major Takeaways from Nawaz Sharif's US Visit (321)

Britain's Tony Blair: Iraq war contributed to rise of IS (311)

Trump: We’d be better off if Hussein and Gadhafi were still in power (362)

Park’s US Visit Highlights Balancing Act With China (293)

Regime and Iranian Forces Launch Multi-Pronged Offensive in Aleppo (362)

Reducing Food Wastage: Not Just Food for Thought (321)

China’s Changing North Korea Policy (383)

Russia's Syria campaign is no panacea (354)

Hybrid War In Afghanistan Takes A New Turn – Analysis (382)

There is no place for malnutrition in the 21st century (409)

The US-China South China Sea Showdown (378)

Has The U.S. Started A Proxy War With Russia In Syria? (387)

The Trouble with Indonesia-Singapore Relations (354)

Australia’s New Terrorism Test. (380)

China: Projecting Power Through Peacekeeping (379)

To end malnutrition, we must step up to the plate with data on what people eat (335)

5 Reasons to Pay Attention to the Global Food Security Act (354)

Britain could ditch human rights laws for troops in battle because of rising compensation culture after Iraq and Afghanistan wars (392)

Is the US Giving Myanmar a Free Pass? (385)

MSF says bombing of Afghan hospital no mistake (302)

If we want to end poverty, we need to be able to measure it properly (383)

Putin's pivot: The Russians are coming to Asia (402)

What Would Reagan Do About China’s Violations of the Law of the Sea? (399)

Time for UN to Shift Its Mission in Yemen (307)

Horses beaten with electric prods, cows left to bleed to death while still conscious and pigs crammed into 'gas cages' in horrifying footage from French abattoir which has prompted animal cruelty probe (439)

Marines Reunite With Dogs They Served With in Middle East After Years Apart (358)

The U.S. Military's 6th Generation Fighter: 5 Ways To Dominate the Sky (407)

Vietnam Between China and the United States: The Next Balancing Test Beckons. (379)

Russia Using Syria As Testing Ground For Its Modern Weaponry (301)

World Food Day and food security (372)

Malnutrition linked to nearly half of deaths among under-fives (403)

U.S. military wants to develop a ‘vampire’ drone that vanishes in the daylight (415)

What South Africa leaving the International Criminal Court would mean... (362)

Refugees and Neighbors: Rohingya in Bangladesh. (408)

US troops deployed to Cameroon for Boko Haram fight (356)

Carter says U.S. will sail, fly and operate wherever whenever (360)

China Enforcing Quasi-ADIZ in South China Sea: Philippine Justice. (390)

Sri Lanka Tamil prisoners on hunger strike demand release (340)

Expanding social protection offers a faster track to ending hunger – UN report (374)

Police told to record hate crimes against Muslims separately: Cameron wants figures to be published (363)

Seafood hit by climate change, Australian study finds (392)

Catalonia, A New State Within Europe? (411)

Myanmar’s Cease-Fire Deal Comes Up Short. (314)

Saudi Arabia just replenished Syrian rebels with one of the most effective weapons against the Assad regime (380)

ISIS and the Dangers of Black Market Oil (528)

Food prices lower for longer (297)

US Boosting ASEAN Capacity Amid South China Sea Tensions. (417)

'Australian Islamic State Fighters Doubled Last Year' (385)

Russia’s Goals, Tactics, And Strategy In Syria War (378)

Hundreds of thousands of migrants will be deported from the EU within weeks under secret plans intended to deter irregular migration (408)

Arsenic found in many American red wines but health risks depend on total diet (354)

Malaysia to Host New Conference to Tackle Islamic State Challenge. (414)

Does China Approve of Russia’s Airstrikes in Syria? (376)

CAN WE ERADICATE POVERTY AND SAVE OUR PLANET? (363)

US-Russia Proxy War In Syria Who s On Russia s Side? (398)

Taliban in Kunduz ISIS in Nangarhar: Fiefdoms of Conflict in Afghanistan (380)

FOOD SECURITY THE END OF A GOLDEN AGE (403)

What Does China Think of the TPP? (394)

Capitulation In Kunduz: Implications For Region (387)

Why We Need South China Sea Freedom of Navigation Patrols. (359)

What are the risks of Russian military involvement in Syria? (394)

How China Is Changing the UN (381)

Central Asia and the ISIS Phantom (294)

Obama-Putin meeting and why EU refugee crisis matters for Russia (401)

Strongest Militaries in the World (399)

Twists and Turns in Thailand s Bombing Case. (398)

China s Protracted War in Xinjiang (398)

Powerful El Niño to cause hunger among world s poorest people (290)

Modi Goes West: Taking Stock of the Indian Prime Minister s US Trip (368)

Inside the looming food wastage crisis (368)

Is Russia Going To Become The Next Superpower? (410)

China s Role in the Syria Crisis Revisited (338)

Pakistan and the Taliban: Past as Prologue? (378)

How Russia can deal with ISIS extremism within its own borders (349)

Cambodia and the Australian Asylum Seeker Deal. (375)

There is no planet B (373)

US CIA s Operations in China Take a Step Back in Wake of OPM Breach (364)

Afghanistan Can t Afford to Lose Kunduz to the Taliban (398)

Australia s New Defence Minister. (399)

The Taliban Take Kunduz: An Eyewitness Account (374)

Southeast Asia s Piracy Headache. (368)

Russia U.S. Ties Putin And Obama Meet (379)

China-US Cyber Agreements Has Beijing Outmaneuvered Washington? (365)

Nepal Tests India s Much Touted Neighborhood Diplomacy (321)

Efforts in Syria against ISIS won t bring US Russia closer together (384)

How do we protect global food supplies from extreme weather? (409)

PUTIN goes to WAR against ISIS: Stop dithering and FIGHT Russian leader tells West (369)

What ASEAN Can Teach the World About Surviving a Financial Crisis. (404)

What to Read on Xi Jinping s US Visit (361)

Thailand s Military Junta is Clueless about Economic Policy. (386)

What Will The Xi-Obama Summit Really Deliver? (363)

India s Defense FDI Limit Will Hinder Technology Transfer: US Official (415)

The Truth About US Freedom of Navigation Patrols in the South China Sea. (430)

Russian-German relations A renewed dialogue? (405)

Tolerance levels & more (405)

China Myanmar Talk Border Security at Military Consultation (405)

Amid Ongoing India-Pakistan Clashes Is Diplomacy Possible? (333)

The BRICS and the West Partners or rivals? (401)

Good News Global Food Policy Report Strikes Optimistic Tone (341)

How Washington Can Manage Sustainable Strategic Competition With China (389)

How Do Indians Feel About Narendra Modi s Handling of Foreign Policy? (384)

Will Putin Exchange Donbass for Syria? (285)

Britain s Labor Party could be ready to change the nation s Russia policy (377)

China South America and Regional Integration (352)

The paradox of the Minsk Agreements (409)

Hidden hunger is a global killer (399)

The Chinese Cyber Threat in the South China Sea (380)

The Real Significance of the Japan-Vietnam Strategic Partnership. (301)

India and Sri Lanka Vow to Increase Security and Economic Cooperation (358)

China or Iran Who Is the Bigger Threat to U.S. Airpower? (402)

West vs. Russia Media War Heating Up (334)

Becoming the Zero Hunger generation Achieving food security for all (367)

Qatari troops join fight against Houthi rebels (261)

Evaluating the US-India Strategic Agenda (353)

Marine life plummets and food security at risk (392)

China Iran Predict Closer Ties Thanks to Nuclear Deal (362)

Iran Nuclear Deal Lands In the Middle of 2016 Debate (302)

Myanmar Shan Villagers and the Salween Dam Fight. (387)

Anti-Submarine Operations in the Indian Ocean (393)

Improving Women s Rights A Step Toward Global Food Security (293)

Europe s security situation significantly worsened last year (306)

US China Hold Cyber Talks Before Xi s Visit (361)

Nepal: Terai Agitation And The Constitution Making Proces (384)

Investors Are Grabbing a Japan-Size Chunk of the Developing World for Food and Water (370)

Can the US Marines Help Build Indonesia s Amphibious Capabilities? (224)

India-Egypt Relationship: Looking for a new Momentum (311)

Amid Shifting Geopolitical Dynamics India Plays Hard Ball in Afghanistan (343)

Europe s refugee crisis explained (364)

Philippines Australia to Hold Joint Military Exercises. (371)

The Refugee Crisis Isn t a European Problem (393)

Trash or treasure? Repurposing would-be wasted food to feed the hungry and create jobs (410)

Cambodia s Montagnard Problem. (388)

Australia to Bomb Syria? (313)

Is India s APEC Membership on the Table at this Year s Summit? (319)

The solution to this refugee crisis? A revised EU treaty (391)

India and Food Safety (395)

What Thailand s Rejected Constitution Means. (376)

Without ensuring universal access to water there can be no food security (391)

Russia And China Expanding And Cooperating Militarily (324)

Australia Wants to Join India US and Japan in Naval Exercises- Defense Minister (391)

The Problems Foreign Powers Find In The Balkans (385)

Singapore s Impressive Food Security (387)

Afghanistan s Looming Crisis (389)

Exclusive Who s Really Behind Thailand s Erawan Shrine Bomb Blast? (427)

From a Unipolar to a Bipolar Superpower System The Future of the Global Power Dynamic (421)

A Balancing Act;Food for the Hungry Fuel for Your Car (383)

Russia Has a China Problem Too (323)

NATO vs. Russia War Could Begin Today Or Tomorrow (408)

India and Seychelles Strengthen Ties Around Maritime Security Economic Cooperation (391)

Thailand s Navy to Get Boost with New Patrol Vessels. (402)

Global Food Security and the Missed Message of Milan s Expo 2015 (393)

What Now for China s Afghanistan Strategy? (400)

Adrift in ASEAN Tackling Southeast Asia s Migration Challenge. (320)

Putin Says Russia-China Relations At Historic Peak (395)

Australia s Disastrous Asylum Seeker Deal. (368)

A Cold Summer for China and Russia? (325)

Peace is back off the agenda (383)

Iran Nuclear Deal Gains Momentum With Endorsements of Four House Democrats (375)

Philippines Asks for US Military Assistance in South China Sea. (429)

Russia Exploits Obama’s Weaknesses To Destroy US Global Dominance (395)

Growing doubts over GMO safety a scientist s experience (407)

Rethinking the Obama-Xi Summit (407)

Related Topics
.....
 
© by 2015 www.cgpscolombo.com  | Home | Archives  |  Contact Us |